– Easily treated if caught early, made more difficult by calf contracture, calcification or necrosis.
– Weight gain, over weight, pregnancy, aging, leg length discrepency, inappropriate shoes (high heels, changes in heel height, worn out shoes.
– Direct trauma as the cause is rare.
– Increased pain in the morning and/or beginning of activity.
– May lead to achilles tendon rupture, espescially with a history of steroid injections.
– Chronic thickening my lead to surgery for debridement of necrotic or calcified tissue, adhesion release followed by immobilization.